PERENNIALISM (Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler)

Despite differing environments, human nature remains the same everywhere; hence, education should be the same for everyone. This statement suggests a uniform Curriculum for all, thus a major representation of the Core Curriculum design.

Since rationality is man’s highest attribute, he must use it to direct his instinctual nature in accordance with deliberately chosen ends.

 It is education’s task to import knowledge of eternal truth.

 Education is not an imitation of life but a preparation for it.  Does the education system in your Country prepare learners for life?

 The student should be taught certain basic subjects that will acquaint him with the world’s permanencies. This is food for thought for teachers, How do you teach and prepare your Students?

Students should study the great works of literature, philosophy, history, and science in which men through the ages have revealed their greatest aspirations and achievements. How do you relete this wtih the Curriculum in your Country?


ESSENTIALISM (William Bagley, Herman Horne)

Learning, of its very nature, involves hard work and often unwilling application.

 The initiative in education should lie with the teacher rather than with the pupil. Analyse the limitations of the statement.

The heart of the educational process is the assimilation of prescribed subject matter.

The school should retain traditional methods of mental discipline.


RECONSTRUCTIONISM (George Counts, Theodore Brameld)

 Education must commit itself here and now to the creation of a new social order that will fulfill the basic values of our culture and at the same time harmonize with the underlying social and economic forces of the modern world.

The new society must be a genuine democracy, whose major institutions and resources are controlled by the people themselves.

The child, the school, and education itself are conditioned inexorably by social and cultural forces.

 The teacher must convince his pupils of the validity and urgency of the reconstructionist solution, but he must do so with scrupulous regard for democratic procedures.

 The means and ends of education must be completely re-fashioned to meet the demands of the present cultural crisis and to accord with the findings of the behavioral sciences.

Look out for more in coming article

Mary Naikumi @MUST


  1. Morris, TUSHABE says:

    This is really great.
    About the roles of schools in reconstructionist environments…

  2. Gladys Nakalema says:

    hi thanks, its helpful. I am particularly interested in the pragmatism theory